Lung Cancer Fact Sheet


Lung Cancer Fact Sheet

  • surpassed breast cancer Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer in both men and women in the U.S. In 1987, it to become the leading cause of cancer deaths in women.
  • An estimated 158,040 Americans are expected to die from lung cancer in 2015, accounting for approximately 27 percent of all cancer deaths.
  • The number of deaths caused by lung cancer has increased approximately 3.5 percent between 1999 and 2012 from 152,156 to 157,499. The number of deaths among men has plateaued but the number is still rising among women. In 2012, there were 86,740 deaths due to lung cancer in men and 70,759 in women.
  • The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer is higher for men (56.1 per 100,000 persons) than for women (36.4 per 100,000 persons). It also is higher for blacks (48.3 per 100,000 persons) compared to whites (45.6 per 100,000 persons). Black men have a far higher age-adjusted lung cancer death rate than white men, while black and white women have similar rates.

 

Prevalence and Incidence

  • Approximately 402,326 Americans living today have been diagnosed with lung cancer at some point in their lives. 3
  • During 2015, an estimated 221,200 new cases of lung cancer were expected to be diagnosed, representing about 13 percent of all cancer diagnoses. 2
  • The majority of living lung cancer patients have been diagnosed within the last five years. Lung cancer is mostly a disease of the elderly. In 2011, 82 percent of those living with lung cancer were 60 years of age or older. 3
  • In 2011, Kentucky had the highest age-adjusted lung cancer incidence rates in both men (112.2 per 100,000) and women (79.3 per 100,000). Utah had the lowest age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in both men and women (34.5 per 100,000 and 25.0 per 100,000, respectively). 4 These state-specific rates were parallel to smoking prevalence rates.
  • Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, accounting for 1.8 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths in 2012. 5
  • The National Institutes of Health estimate that cancer care cost the U.S. an overall $124.6 billion in 2010, $12.1 billion of which is due to lung cancer. Lost productivity due to early death from cancer lead to an additional $134.8 billion in 2005, $36.1 billion of which was caused by lung cancer. 6

Gender Differences

  • More men are diagnosed with lung cancer each year, but more women live with the disease. The rate of new cases in 2011 showed that men develop lung cancer more often than women (64.8 and 48.6 per 100,000, respectively). 3
  • The rate of new lung cancer cases (incidence) over the past 37 years has dropped for men (28 percent decrease), while it has risen for women (98 percent increase). In 1975, rates were low for women, but rising for both men and women. In 1984, the rate of new cases for men peaked (102.1 per 100,000) and then began declining. The rate of new cases for women increased further, did not peak until 1998 (52.9 per 100,000), and has now started to decline.3

 

Racial/Ethnic Differences

  • Blacks are more likely to develop and die from lung cancer than persons of any other racial or ethnic group. The age-adjusted lung cancer incidence rate among black men is approximately 32 percent higher than for white men, even though their overall exposure to cigarette smoke, the primary risk factor for lung cancer, is lower. 3, 7
  • The lung cancer incidence rate for black women is roughly equal to that of white women, despite the fact that they smoke fewer cigarettes. 3, 7

Survival Rates

  • The lung cancer five-year survival rate (17.8 percent) is lower than many other leading cancer sites, such as the colon (65.4 percent), breast (90.5 percent) and prostate (99.6 percent). 3
  • The five-year survival rate for lung cancer is 54 percent for cases detected when the disease is still localized (within the lungs). However, only 15 percent of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at an early stage. For distant tumors (spread to other organs) the five-year survival rate is only 4 percent. 3
  • More than half of people with lung cancer die within one year of being diagnosed. 3

 

Smoking-Attributable Lung Cancer

  • Smoking, a main cause of small cell and non-small cell lung cancer, contributes to 80 percent and 90 percent of lung cancer deaths in women and men, respectively. Men who smoke are 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer. Women are 13 times more likely, compared to never smokers. 8
  • Between 2005 and 2010, an average of 130,659 Americans (74,300 men and 56,359 women) died of smoking-attributable lung cancer each year. Exposure to secondhand smoke causes approximately 7,330 lung cancer deaths among nonsmokers every year. 9
  • Nonsmokers have a 20 to 30 percent greater chance of developing lung cancer if they are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or work. 10

Other Causes

  • It has been estimated that active smoking is responsible for close to 90 percent of lung cancer cases; radon causes 10 percent, occupational exposures to carcinogens account for approximately 9 to 15 percent and outdoor air pollution 1 to 2 percent. Because of the interactions between exposures, the combined attributable risk for lung cancer can exceed 100 percent. 11
  • Exposure to radon is estimated to be the second-leading cause of lung cancer, accounting for an estimated 21,000 lung cancer deaths each year (range of 8,000 to 45,000). Radon is a tasteless, colorless and odorless gas that is produced by decaying uranium and occurs naturally in soil and rock. The majority of these deaths occur among smokers since there is a greater risk for lung cancer when smokers also are exposed to radon. 12
  • Lung cancer can also be caused by occupational exposures, including asbestos, uranium and coke (an important fuel in the manufacture of iron in smelters, blast furnaces and foundries). The combination of asbestos exposure and smoking greatly increases the risk of developing lung cancer. 13
  • Nonsmoking asbes­tos workers are five times more likely to develop lung cancer than non­smokers not ex­posed to asbestos; if they also smoke, the risk factor jumps to 50 or higher. 11 Environmental exposures also can increase the risk of lung cancer death. 14

For More Information on Lung Cancer Research @ Mayo Clinic

 

For more information on lung cancer, please review the Lung Cancer Morbidity and Mortality Trend Report at www.lung.org or call the American Lung Association at1-800-LUNG-USA (1-800-586-4872).

  • Sources
    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999-2012 Series 20 No. 2R, 2014.
    2. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures, 2015.
    3. S. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011.
    4. S. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute. State Cancer Profiles ;web tool, accessed October 6, 2014.
    5. World Health Organization. International Agency for Research on Cancer. GLOBOCAN 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012. Lung Cancer. Accessed November 10, 2014.
    6. S. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Trends Progress Report – 2011/2012 Update. Costs of Cancer Care.
    7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Analysis by the American Lung Association, Research and Program Services Division using SPSS software.
    8. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the U.S. Surgeon General, 2004.
    9. S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2014.
    10. S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2006.
    11. Alberg AJ, Samet JM. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer. Chest. 2003; 123:21-49.
    12. S. Environmental Protection Agency. A Citizen’s Guide to Radon. January 2013.
    13. S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Toxicology Program. 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC). June 10, 2011.
    14. Jerrett M, et al. Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in Los Angeles. Epidemiology. November 2005; 16(6):727-36.

*Racial and ethnic minority terminology reflects those terms used by the Centers For Disease Control.

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SavMayo Clinic information Link for Lung Cancer

 

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STOP SMOKING FAST FACTS


Fast Facts About Smoking

 

Diseases and Death

Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body

  • More than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking.
  • For every person who dies because of smoking, at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness.
  • Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
  • Smoking also increases risk for tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Smoking is a known cause of erectile dysfunction in males.

Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death.

  • Worldwide, tobacco use causes nearly 6 million deaths per year, and current trends show that tobacco use will cause more than 8 million deaths annually by 2030.
  • Cigarette smoking is responsible for more than 480,000 deaths per year in the United States, including more than 41,000 deaths resulting from secondhand smoke exposure. This is about one in five deaths annually, or 1,300 deaths every day.
  • On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers.
  • If smoking continues at the current rate among U.S. youth, 5.6 million of today’s Americans younger than 18 years of age are expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. This represents about one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger who are alive today.

Costs and Expenditures

The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars each year on cigarette advertising and promotions.4

  • In 2014, more than $9 billion was spent on advertising and promotion of cigarettes—nearly $25 million every day, and about $1 million every hour.
  • Price discounts account for nearly 80% of all cigarette marketing. These are discounts paid to cigarette retailers or wholesalers in order to reduce the price of cigarettes to consumers.

Smoking costs the United States billions of dollars each year.

  • Total economic cost of smoking is more than $300 billion a year, including
  • Nearly $170 billion in direct medical care for adults
  • More than $156 billion in lost productivity due to premature death and exposure to secondhand smoke

State spending on tobacco prevention and control does not meet CDC-recommended levels.

  • States have billions of dollars from tobacco taxes and tobacco industry legal settlements to prevent and control tobacco use. However, states currently use a very small amount of these funds for tobacco control programs.
  • In fiscal year 2017, states will collect $26.6 billion from tobacco taxes and legal settlements but will only spend $491.6 million—less than 2%—on prevention and cessation programs.
  • Currently, only two states (Alaska and North Dakota) fund tobacco control programs at CDC’s “recommended” level. Only one other state (Oklahoma) provides even half the recommended funding. Two states (Connecticut and New Jersey) have allocated no state funds for tobacco use prevention.
  • Spending less than 13% (i.e., $3.3 billion) of the $26.6 billion would fund every state tobacco control program at CDC-recommended levels.

Cigarette Smoking in the US

Percentage of U.S. adults aged 18 years or older who were current cigarette smokers in 2015:8

  • 15.1% of all adults (36.5 million people): 16.7% of males, 13.6% of females
    • Nearly 22 of every 100 non-Hispanic American Indians/Alaska Natives (21.9%)
    • About 20 of every 100 non-Hispanic multiple race individuals (20.2%)
    • Nearly 17 of every 100 non-Hispanic Blacks (16.7%)
    • Nearly 17 of every 100 non-Hispanic Whites (16.6%)
    • About 10 of every 100 Hispanics (10.1%)
    • 7 of every 100 non-Hispanic Asians (7.0%)

Note: Current cigarette smokers are defined as persons who reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and who, at the time they participated in a survey about this topic, reported smoking every day or some days.

Thousands of young people start smoking cigarettes every day.

  • Each day, more than 3,200 people younger than 18 years of age smoke their first cigarette.
  • Each day, an estimated 2,100 youth and young adults who have been occasional smokers become daily cigarette smokers.

Many adult cigarette smokers want to quit smoking.

  • In 2011:1
  • Nearly 7 in 10 (68.9%) adult cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking.
  • More than 4 in 10 (42.7%) adult cigarette smokers had made a quit attempt in the past year.
  • Since 2012, the Tips From Former SmokersTM campaign has motivated an estimated 500,000 tobacco smokers to quit for good.

Note: “Made a quit attempt” refers to smokers who reported that they stopped smoking for more than 1 day in the past 12 months because they were trying to quit smoking.

STOP SMOKING AND HAVE THE LIFESTYLE YOU DESERVE

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QUITTING SMOKING


Quitting Smoking

Tobacco use can lead to tobacco/nicotine dependence and serious health problems. Quitting smoking greatly reduces the risk of developing smoking-related diseases.

Tobacco/nicotine dependence is a condition that often requires repeated treatments, but there are helpful treatments and resources for quitting.

Smokers can and do quit smoking. In fact, today there are more former smokers than current smokers.

Nicotine Dependence

  • Most smokers become addicted to nicotine, a drug that is found naturally in tobacco.
  • More people in the United States are addicted to nicotine than to any other drug.
  • Research suggests that nicotine may be as addictive as heroin, cocaine, or alcohol.
  • Quitting smoking is hard and may require several attempts.
  • People who stop smoking often start again because of withdrawal symptoms, stress, and weight gain.
  • Nicotine withdrawal symptoms may include:
    • Feeling irritable, angry, or anxious
    • Having trouble thinking
    • Craving tobacco products
    • Feeling hungrier than usual

Health Benefits of Quitting

  • Tobacco smoke contains a deadly mix of more than 7,000 chemicals; hundreds are harmful, and about 70 can cause cancer.
  • Smoking increases the risk for serious health problems, many diseases, and death.
  • People who stop smoking greatly reduce their risk for disease and early death. Although the health benefits are greater for people who stop at earlier ages, there are benefits at any age.
  • You are never too old to quit.

Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits:

  • Lowered risk for lung cancer and many other types of cancer.
  • Reduced risk for heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (narrowing of the blood vessels outside your heart).
  • Reduced heart disease risk within 1 to 2 years of quitting.
  • Reduced respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. While these symptoms may not disappear, they do not continue to progress at the same rate among people who quit compared with those who continue to smoke.
  • Reduced risk of developing some lung diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, also known as COPD, one of the leading causes of death in the United States).
  • Reduced risk for infertility in women of childbearing age. Women who stop smoking during pregnancy also reduce their risk of having a low birth weight baby.

Smokers’ Attempts to Quit

Among all current U.S. adult cigarette smokers, nearly 7 out of every 10 (68.0%) reported in 2015 that they wanted to quit completely.

  • Since 2002, the number of former smokers has been greater than the number of current smokers.

Percentage of adult daily cigarette smokers who stopped smoking for more than 1 day in 2015 because they were trying to quit:10

  • More than 5 out of 10 (55.4%) of all adult smokers
  • Nearly 7 out of 10 (66.7%) smokers aged 18–24 years
  • Nearly 6 out of 10 (59.8%) smokers aged 25–44 years
  • More than 4 out of 10 (49.6%) smokers aged 45–64 years
  • About 4 out of 10 (47.2%) smokers aged 65 years or older

Percentage of high school cigarette smokers who tried to stop smoking in the past 12 months:

  • More than 4 out of 10 (45.5%) of all high school students who smoke

Ways to Quit Smoking

Most former smokers quit without using one of the treatments that scientific research has shown can work.10 However, the following treatments are proven to be effective for smokers who want help to quit:

  • Brief help by a doctor (such as when a doctor takes 10 minutes or less to give a patient advice and assistance about quitting)
  • Individual, group, or telephone counseling
  • Behavioral therapies (such as training in problem solving)
  • Treatments with more person-to-person contact and more intensity (such as more or longer counseling sessions)
  • Programs to deliver treatments using mobile phones

Medications for quitting that have been found to be effective include the following:

  • Homeopathic Over-the-counter stop smoking aids
  • Nicotine replacement products
  • Over-the-counter (nicotine patch [which is also available by prescription], gum, lozenge)
  • Prescription (nicotine patch, inhaler, nasal spray)
  • Prescription non-nicotine medications: bupropion SR (Zyban®), varenicline tartrate (Chantix®)

Counseling and medication are both effective for treating tobacco dependence, and using them together is more effective than using either one alone.

  • More information is needed about quitting for people who smoke cigarettes and also use other types of tobacco.

Helpful Resources

Quit line Services

Call 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) if you want help quitting. This is a free telephone support service that can help people who want to stop smoking or using tobacco. Callers are routed to their state quit lines, which offer several types of quit information and services. These may include:

  • Free support, advice, and counseling from experienced quit line coaches
  • A personalized quit plan
  • Practical information on how to quit, including ways to cope with nicotine withdrawal
  • The latest information about stop-smoking medications
  • Free or discounted medications (available for at least some callers in most states)
  • Referrals to other resources
  • Mailed self-help materials

Online Help

Get free help online, too.

Facebook has an assortment of Quit Smoking Groups.

Here are some non-bias groups you may want to start with:

FACEBOOK: Quit Smoking Support Group  #dowhatworksforyou

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STOP SMOKING… Health Benefits of Quitting


Health Benefits of Quitting

 

  • Tobacco smoke contains a deadly mix of more than 7,000 chemicals; hundreds are harmful, and about 70 can cause cancer.
  • Smoking increases the risk for serious health problems, many diseases, and death.
  • People who stop smoking greatly reduce their risk for disease and early death.
  • Although the health benefits are greater for people who stop at earlier ages, there are benefits at any age.
  • You are never too old to quit.

Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits:

  • Lowered risk for lung cancer and many other types of cancer.
  • Reduced risk for heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (narrowing of the blood vessels outside your heart).
  • Reduced heart disease risk within 1 to 2 years of quitting.
  • Reduced respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. While these symptoms may not disappear, they do not continue to progress at the same rate among people who quit compared with those who continue to smoke.
  • Reduced risk of developing some lung diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, also known as COPD, one of the leading causes of death in the United States).
  • Reduced risk for infertility in women of childbearing age. Women who stop smoking during pregnancy also reduce their risk of having a low birth weight baby.