The Year of the Lord’s Favor… Will FEMA GO BROKE IN 2018 ?


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2018 is this year going to reveal what we all have feared?

With so many natural disasters with in the past few years taxing FEMA’s piggy bank, what happens when its all gone?

What will America do when FEMA is broke? Do you have home owners insurance or renters insurance to cover your damages?

Just to name a few places. Texas, Hawaii, Louisiana, Florida, New York, New Jersey, East Coast, West Coast fires and Mudslides, Earth Quakes, Extended weather, unusual tornadoes and hurricane seasons are becoming more familiar everyday.

FEMA’s Budget 13.9 Billion dollars has been set aside for 2018

We are only into 6 months of the year and the balance left is $21 million at the end of May 2018. That does not include Hawaii’s Volcano Eruption.

 

 

U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather & Climate Disasters 2013-2018
  • Drought
  • Flooding
  • Freeze
  • Severe Storm
  • Tropical Cyclone
  • Wildfire
  • Winter Storm

 

2018
Hawaii Volcano Kilauea Eruption
May 3, 2018
Still continues to erupt lava, As of 6-15-2018 there are 700+ structures destroyed.  They have no idea how many more will be lost as the lava continues with no stopping in site.
Total Estimated Costs
TBD
Southeastern Severe Storms
March 2018
A potent severe storm system caused over 20 tornadoes across Alabama and also widespread hail damage from Texas to Florida. This system also created significant late-season snowfall and across many Eastern and Northeastern states.
Total Estimated Costs
TBD
3 Deaths
Northeast Winter Storm
March 2018
Powerful Nor’easter impacted Northeastern states MD, MA, NH, NJ, NY, PA, CT, DE, RA and VA. Damage due to high winds, heavy snow and heavy coastal erosion.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.8 Billion
9 Deaths
Central and Eastern Winter Storm
January 2018
A Nor’easter caused damage across many Northeastern states including MA, NJ, NY, CT, ME, NH, PA, MD, RI, SC, TN, VA, NC and GA.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.0 Billion
22 Deaths
2017
Western Wildfires, California Firestorm
Summer-Fall 2017
A historic firestorm damages or destroys over 15,000 homes, businesses and other structures across California in October. The combined destruction of the Tubbs, Atlas, Nuns and Redwood Valley wildfires represent the most costly wildfire event on record, also causing 44 deaths. Extreme wildfire conditions in early December also burned hundreds of homes in Los Angeles. Numerous other wildfires across many western and northwestern states burn over 9.8 million acres exceeding the 10-year annual average of 6.5 million acres. Montana in particular was affected by wildfires that burned in excess of 1 million acres. These wildfire conditions were enhanced by the preceding drought conditions in several states.
Total Estimated Costs
$18.0 ($18.2) Billion
54 Deaths
North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana Drought
Spring-Fall 2017
Extreme drought causes extensive impacts to agriculture in North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. Field crops including wheat were severely damaged and the lack of feed for cattle forced ranchers to sell off livestock. This drought has also contributed to the increased potential for severe wildfires.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.5 Billion
0 Deaths
Hurricane Maria
September 2017
Category 4 hurricane made landfall in southeast Puerto Rico after striking the U.S. Virgin Island of St. Croix.
Maria’s high winds caused widespread devastation to Puerto Rico’s transportation, agriculture, communication and energy infrastructure. Extreme rainfall up to 37 inches caused widespread flooding and mudslides across the island. The interruption to commerce and standard living conditions will be sustained for a long period, as much of Puerto Rico’s infrastructure is rebuilt. Maria tied Hurricane Wilma (2005) for the most rapid intensification, strengthening from tropical depression to a category 5 storm in 54 hours. Maria’s landfall at Category 4 strength gives the U.S. a record three Category 4+ landfalls this year (Maria, Harvey, and Irma). A reanalysis on the number of deaths due to Maria is being conducted and will be updated in the coming months.
Total Estimated Costs
$90.0 ($90.9) Billion
65 Deaths
Hurricane Irma
September 2017
Category 4 hurricane made landfall at Cudjoe Key, Florida after devastating the U.S. Virgin Islands – St John and St Thomas – as a category 5 storm. The Florida Keys were heavily impacted, as 25% of buildings were destroyed while 65% were significantly damaged. Severe wind and storm surge damage also occurred along the coasts of Florida and South Carolina. Jacksonville, FL and Charleston, SC received near-historic levels of storm surge causing significant coastal flooding. Irma maintained a maximum sustained wind of 185 mph for 37 hours, the longest in the satellite era. Irma also was a category 5 storm for longer than all other Atlantic hurricanes except Ivan in 2004.
Total Estimated
Costs
$50.0 ($50.5) Billion
97 Deaths
Hurricane Harvey
August 2017
Category 4 hurricane made landfall near Rockport, Texas causing widespread damage. Harvey’s devastation
was most pronounced due to the large region of extreme rainfall producing historic flooding across Houston and surrounding areas. More than 30 inches of rainfall fell on 6.9 million people, while 1.25 million experienced over 45 inches and 11,000 had over 50 inches, based on 7-day rainfall totals ending August 31. This historic U.S. rainfall caused massive flooding that displaced over 30,000 people and damaged or destroyed over 200,000 homes and businesses.
Total Estimated Costs
$125.0 ($126.3) Billion
89 Deaths
Midwest Severe Weather
June 2017
Severe hail and high wind damage impacting Nebraska, Illinois and Iowa. More than one dozen tornadoes
touched down across parts of Iowa, in addition to other storm damage.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.4 Billion
0 Deaths
Midwest Severe Weather
June 2017
Severe hail, high winds and numerous tornadoes impact many states over several days including WY, TX, NE, KS, MO, IA, IL, PA, VA, NY.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.5 ($1.6) Billion
0 Deaths
Minnesota Hail Storm and Upper Midwest Severe Weather
June 2017
Severe hail and high winds cause considerable damage across Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Minneapolis metro area in particular was damaged from large, destructive hail impacting many buildings and vehicles. This damage is comparable to the May 15, 1998 Minnesota hail storm that was also very costly.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.4 Billion
0 Deaths
Colorado Hail Storm and Central Severe Weather
May 2017
Hail storm and wind damage impacting several states including CO, OK, TX, NM, MO. The most costly impacts were in the Denver metro region where baseball-sized hail caused the most expensive hail storm in Colorado history, with insured losses exceeding 2.2 (2.3) billion.
Total Estimated Costs
$3.4 ($3.5) Billion
0 Deaths
Missouri and Arkansas Flooding and Central Severe Weather
May 2017
A period of heavy rainfall up to 15 inches over a multi-state region in the Midwest caused historic levels of flooding along many rivers. The flooding was most severe in Missouri, Arkansas and southern Illinois where levees were breached and towns were flooded. There was widespread damage to homes, businesses, infrastructure and agriculture. Severe storms also caused additional impacts during the flooding event across a number of central and southern states.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.7 Billion
20 Deaths
South/Southeast Severe Weather
March 2017
Large hail and high winds in Texas north of the Dallas metro region caused widespread damage to structures and vehicles. Severe storms also caused damage across several other states (OK, TN, KY, MS, AL) due to the combination of high winds, hail and tornadoes.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.7 ($2.8) Billion
0 Deaths
Southeast Freeze
March 2017
Severe freeze heavily damaged fruit crops across several southeastern states (SC, GA, NC, TN, AL, MS, FL, KY, VA). Mid-March freezes are not climatologically unusual in the Southeast, however many crops were blooming 3+ weeks early due to unusually warm temperatures during the preceding weeks. Damage was most severe in Georgia and South Carolina. Crops most impacted include peaches, blueberries, strawberries and apples, among others.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.0 Billion
0 Deaths
Midwest Tornado Outbreak
March 2017
Tornado outbreak and wind damage across many Midwestern states (AR, IA, IL, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, NY, OH, WI). Missouri and Illinois were impacted by numerous tornadoes while Michigan and New York were affected by destructive, straight-line winds following the storm system. Nearly one million customers lost power in Michigan alone due to sustained high winds, which affected several states from Illinois to New York.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.2 Billion
2 Deaths
Central/Southeast Tornado Outbreak
March 2017
Over 70 tornadoes developed during a widespread outbreak across many central and southern states causing significant damage. There was also widespread straight-line wind and hail damage. This was the second largest tornado outbreak to occur early in 2017.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.8 ($1.9) Billion
6 Deaths
California Flooding
February 2017
Heavy, persistent rainfall across northern and central California created substantial property and infrastructure damage from flooding, landslides and erosion. Notable impacts include severe damage to the Oroville Dam spillway, which caused a multi-day evacuation of 188,000 residents downstream. Excessive rainfall also caused flood damage in the city of San Jose, as Coyote Creek overflowed its banks and inundated neighborhoods forcing 14,000 residents to evacuate.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.5 Billion
5 Deaths
Southern Tornado Outbreak and Western Storms
January 2017
High wind damage occurred across southern California near San Diego followed by 79 confirmed tornadoes during an outbreak across many southern states including AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, SC and TX. This was the 3rd most tornadoes to occur in a single outbreak during a winter month (Dec.-Feb.) for records going back to 1950.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.1 Billion
24 Deaths
2016
Western/Southeast Wildfires
Summer-Fall 2016
Western and Southern states experienced an active wildfire season with over 5.0 million acres burned nationally. Most notable was the firestorm that impacted Gatlinburg, Tennessee with hurricane-force wind gusts in extremely dry conditions creating volatile wildfire behavior. These wildfires destroyed nearly 2,500 structures and caused 14 fatalities. The drought conditions in many areas of the Southeast and California worsened the wildfire potential.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.4 ($2.5) Billion
21 Deaths
West/Northeast/Southeast Drought
2016
California’s 5-year drought persisted during 2016 while new areas of extreme drought developed in states across the Northeast and Southeast. The long-term impacts of the drought in California have damaged forests where 100+ million trees have perished and are a public safety hazard. The agricultural impacts were reduced in California as water prices and crop fallowing declined. However, agricultural impacts developed in Northeast and Southeast due to stressed water supplies.
Total Estimated Costs
$3.5 ($3.6) Billion
0 Deaths
Hurricane Matthew
October 2016
Hurricane Matthew paralleled the Southeast coast from Florida to North Carolina causing widespread damage from wind, storm surge and inland flooding. The most costly impacts were due to historic levels of river flooding in eastern North Carolina where 100,000 homes, businesses and other structures were damaged. This inland flooding was comparable to Hurricane Floyd (1999) that also impacted
eastern North Carolina. Matthew narrowly missed landfall on Florida’s east coast as a powerful category 4 storm.
Total Estimated Costs
$10.0 ($10.5) Billion
49 Deaths
Louisiana Flooding
August 2016
A historic flood devastated a large area of southern Louisiana resulting from 20 to 30 inches of rainfall over several days. Watson, Louisiana received an astounding 31.39 inches of rain from the storm. Two-day rainfall totals in the hardest hit areas have a 0.2% chance of occurring in any given year: a 1 in 500 year event. More than 30,000 people were rescued from the floodwaters that damaged or destroyed over 50,000 homes, 100,000 vehicles and 20,000 businesses. This is the most damaging U.S. flood event since Superstorm Sandy impacted the Northeast in 2012.
Total Estimated Costs
$10.0 ($10.5) Billion
13 Deaths
Rockies and Northeast Severe Weather
July 2016
Severe storms across the Rockies and Northeastern states (CO, WY, VA, MD, PA, NJ, NY) caused large hail and high wind damage. Storm damage in Colorado was the most costly due to hail.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.5 Billion
0 Deaths
West Virginia Flooding and Ohio Valley Tornadoes
June 2016
Torrential rainfall caused destructive flooding through many West Virginia towns, damaging thousands of homes and businesses and causing considerable loss of life. Over 1,500 roads and bridges were damaged or destroyed making the impact on infrastructure comparable to the historic 2013 Colorado flood. The storm system also produced numerous tornadoes causing damage across several Ohio Valley states.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.0 Billion
23 Deaths
Rockies/Central Tornadoes and Severe Weather
May 2016
Sustained period of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes affecting several states including Montana, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri and Texas. The most concentrated days for tornado development were on May 22 and 24. Additional damage was created by straight-line high wind and hail damage.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.1 ($1.2) Billion
0 Deaths
Plains Tornadoes and Central Severe Weather
May 2016
Tornadoes and severe storms cause widespread damage across the Plains and Central states (NE, MO, TX, OK, KS, CO, IL, KY, TN) over a multi-day period. The damage from tornadoes and high wind was most costly in Nebraska and Missouri.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.7 ($1.8) Billion
2 Deaths
South/Southeast Tornadoes
April 2016
Large outbreak of tornadoes affects numerous states across the South and Southeast. Additional damage also from large hail and straight-line wind during the multi-day thunderstorm event.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.4 ($2.5) Billion
6 Deaths
Houston Flooding
April 2016
A period of extreme rainfall up to 17 inches created widespread urban flooding in Houston and surrounding suburbs. Thousands of homes and businesses were damaged and more than 1,800 high water rescues were conducted. This represents the most widespread flooding event to affect Houston since Tropical Storm Allison in 2001.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.7 ($2.8) Billion
8 Deaths
North/Central Texas Hail Storm
April 2016
Widespread severe hail damage across north and central Texas including the cities of Plano, Wylie, Frisco, Allen and San Antonio. The damage in San Antonio was particularly severe as the National Weather Service verified reports of hail size reaching 4.5 inches in diameter. This ranks as one of the most costly hail events to affect the United States.
Total Estimated Costs
$3.5 ($3.7) Billion
0 Deaths
North Texas Hail Storm
March 2016
Large hail and strong winds caused considerable damage in heavily populated areas of north Texas. This damage was most notable in the cities of Dallas, Fort Worth and Plano.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.1 ($2.2) Billion
0 Deaths
Southern Severe Weather
March 2016
Severe hail impacts the Fort Worth and Arlington metro region in Texas. Additional large hail and high wind damage occurred in other locations of Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.2 ($1.3) Billion
1 Death
Texas and Louisiana Flooding
March 2016
Multiple days of heavy rainfall averaging 15 to 20 inches led to widespread flooding along the Sabine River basin on the Texas and Louisiana border. This prompted numerous evacuations, high-water rescues and destruction, as more than 1,000 homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.3 ($2.4) Billion
5 Deaths
Southeast and Eastern Tornadoes
February 2016
Early outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather across many southern and eastern states including (AL, CT, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, SC, TX, VA). There were at least 50 confirmed tornadoes causing widespread damage.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.0 ($1.1) Billion
10 Deaths
2015
Western Drought
2015
Drought conditions were present across numerous western states (CA, NV, OR, WA, ID, MT, UT, AZ) with the most severe conditions continuing to plague California for all of 2015. The agriculture sector was again impacted by a lack of rainfall resulting in hundreds of
thousands of acres of farmland remaining fallow and requiring excess groundwater pumping to irrigate existing agriculture interests. Wildfire conditions were further enhanced by the ongoing drought. California experienced extensive damage from both drought and wildfire impacts. Drought conditions did improve dramatically across Texas and Oklahoma, in the form of several major flood events.
Total Estimated Costs
$4.5 ($4.8) Billion
0 Deaths
Texas Tornadoes and Midwest Flooding
December 2015
A powerful storm system packing unseasonably strong tornadoes caused widespread destruction in the Dallas metropolitan region, damaging well over 1,000 homes and businesses. This same potent system also produced intense rainfall over several Midwestern states triggering historic flooding that has approached or broken records at river gauges in several states (MO, IL, AR, TN, MS, LA). The flooding has over topped levees and caused damage in numerous areas. This historic storm also produced high wind, snow and ice impacts from New Mexico through the Midwest and into New England. Overall, the storm caused at least 50 deaths from the combined impact of tornadoes, flooding and winter weather.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.0 ($2.1) Billion
50 Deaths
Western and Alaskan Wildfires
Summer-Fall 2015
Wildfires burned over 10.1 million acres across the U.S. in 2015, surpassing 2006 for the highest annual total of U.S. acreage burned since record-keeping began in 1960. The most costly wildfires occurred in California where over 2,500 structures were destroyed due to the Valley and Butte wildfires with the insured losses alone exceeding 1.0 (1.1) billion. The most extensive wildfires occurred in Alaska where over 5 million acres burned within the state. There was extensive burnt acreage across other western states, most notably (OR, WA, ID, MT, ND, CO, WY, TX).
Total Estimated Costs
$3.0 ($3.2) Billion
12 Deaths
South Carolina and East Coast Flooding
October 2015
Historic levels of flooding impacted South Carolina causing widespread damage to many homes, businesses, public buildings and infrastructure. This interrupted commerce and closed major transportation corridors (such as I-95) for weeks as rivers slowly receded. Locally extreme rainfall totals exceeding 20-inches were common resulting from the convergence of a powerful low pressure system / frontal boundary and copious moisture from Hurricane Joaquin in the Atlantic.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.0 ($2.1) Billion
25 Deaths
Central and Northeast Severe Weather
June 2015
Severe storms across numerous Central and Northeast states (CO, CT, IA, IL, MD, MI, NJ, NY, PA, SD, VA, WI) with widespread hail and high wind damage.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.2 ($1.3) Billion
1 Death
Texas and Oklahoma Flooding and Severe Weather
May 2015
A slow-moving system caused tremendous rainfall and subsequent flooding to occur in Texas and Oklahoma. The Blanco river in Texas swelled from 5 feet to a crest of more than 40 feet over several hours causing considerable property damage and loss of life. The city of Houston also experienced flooding which resulted in hundreds of high-water rescues. The damage in Texas alone exceeded 1.0 (1.1) billion. There was also damage in other states (KS, CO, AR, OH, LA, GA, SC) from associated severe storms.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.5 ($2.7) Billion
31 Deaths
Southern Plains Tornadoes
May 2015
Tornado outbreak across the Southern Plain states (IA, KS, NE, OK, CO, SD, TX) with 122 tornadoes. The most costly damage occurred across Texas and Oklahoma.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.3 ($1.4) Billion
4 Deaths
South/Southeast Severe Weather
April 2015
Severe storms across the South and Southeastern states (AL, AR, FL, GA, KS, LA, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX). High winds and severe hail created the most significant damage in Texas.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.3 ($1.4) Billion
0 Deaths
Midwest/Ohio Valley Severe Weather
April 2015
Severe storms across the Midwest and Ohio Valley including the states (AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MI, MO, NC, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WI, WV). Large hail and high winds created the most damage across Missouri and Illinois.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.6 ($1.7) Billion
2 Deaths
Central and Eastern Winter storm, Cold Wave
February 2015
A large winter storm and associated cold wave impacted many central, eastern and northeastern states (CT, DE, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA). The city of Boston was particularly impacted as feet of snow continued to accumulate causing load-stress on buildings and clogging transportation corridors. Total, direct losses in Massachusetts alone exceed 1.0 (1.1) billion for this event, with considerable damage in many other states.
Total Estimated Costs
$3.0 ($3.2) Billion
30 Deaths
2014
Western Drought
2014
Historic drought conditions affected the majority of California for all of 2014 making it the worst drought on record for the state. Surrounding states and parts of Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas also experienced continued severe drought conditions. This is a continuation of
drought conditions that have persisted for several years.
Total Estimated Costs
$4.0 ($4.2) Billion
0 Deaths
Rockies/Plains Severe Weather
September 2014
Severe storms across the Rockies and Plains states (CO, KS, TX). Large hail and high winds created significant damage across eastern Colorado and Texas, particularly in the Dallas metro area.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.4 ($1.5) Billion
 0 Deaths
Michigan and Northeast Flooding
August 2014
Heavy rainfall in excess of 5 inches caused significant flooding in cities across Michigan damaging thousands of cars, business, homes and other infrastructure. Flooding also occurred across Maryland and New York’s Long Island, as the slow-moving storm system delivered 24-hour rainfall exceeding 6 and 12 inches, respectively, creating more flood damage. Islip, NY received 13.57 inches of rain over a 24-hour period on Aug 12-13 setting a new 24-hour precipitation record for New York.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.0 ($1.1) Billion
2 Deaths
Rockies/Central Plains Severe Weather
June 2014
Severe storms across the Rockies and Central Plains states (NE, KS, WY, IA, AR). Wind gusts exceeding 90 mph and baseball to softball sized hail caused severe damage to structures and vehicles in central and eastern Nebraska.
Total
Estimated Costs
$1.9 ($2.0) Billion
2 Deaths
Rockies/Midwest/Eastern Severe Weather
May 2014
Severe storms across the Rockies, Midwest and Eastern states (CO, MT, IA, IL, IN, OH, SC, VA, PA, DE, NY) with the most costly damage in Colorado, Illinois and Pennsylvania.
Total Estimated Costs
$3.7 ($3.9) Billion
0 Deaths
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Tornadoes and Flooding
April 2014
Tornado outbreak across the Midwest, Southeast and Northeast states
(AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, KS, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, TN, VA) with 83 confirmed tornadoes. Mississippi had its 3rd greatest number of tornadoes reported for any day since 1950. Torrential rainfall in the Florida panhandle also caused major flooding, as Pensacola set new 1-day and 2-day precipitation records of 15.55 and 20.47 inches, respectively. Flooding rains were also reported in coastal Alabama, as Mobile received 11.24 inches of rain, the third greatest calendar day rainfall total for the city.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.7 ($1.8) Billion
33 Deaths
Plains Severe Weather
April 2014
Severe storms across the Plains states (IL, KS, MO, TX) causing considerable hail and wind damage in Texas.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.4 ($1.5) Billion
0 Deaths
Midwest/Southeast/Northeast Winter Storm
January 2014
Winter storm caused widespread damage across numerous Midwest, Southeast and Northeastern states (AL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA).
Total Estimated Costs
$2.2 ($2.3) Billion
16 Deaths
2013
Western/Plains Drought/Heatwave
Spring-Fall 2013
The 2013 drought slowly dissipated from the historic levels of the 2012 drought, as conditions improved across many Midwestern and Plains states. However, moderate to extreme drought did remain or expand into western states (AZ, CA, CO, IA, ID, IL, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WI, WY). In comparison to 2011 and 2012 drought conditions the US experienced only moderate crop losses across the central agriculture states.
Total Estimated Costs
$10.4 ($11.3) Billion
53 Deaths
Ohio Valley Tornadoes
November 2013
Late-season outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather over the Ohio Valley (IL, IN, KY, MI, MO, OH) with 70 confirmed tornadoes. Most severe impacts occurred across Illinois and Indiana.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.1 ($1.2) Billion
8 Deaths
Colorado Flooding
September 2013
A stalled frontal boundary over Colorado led to record rainfall, as some areas received > 15 inches over several days. This resulted in historic flooding across numerous cities and towns. Destruction of residences, businesses and transportation infrastructure was widespread.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.5 ($1.6) Billion
9 Deaths
Midwest Severe Weather
August 2013
Severe weather and large hail causes considerable damage across Minnesota and Wisconsin.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.0 ($1.1) Billion
0 Deaths
Midwest/Plains/Northeast Tornadoes
May 2013
Outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather over the Midwest, Plains and Northeast (IL, IN, KS, MO, NY, OK, TX) with 92 confirmed tornadoes including the deadly tornado that struck El Reno, OK. There was also significant damage resulting from hail and straight-line wind.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.8 ($2.0) Billion
10 Deaths
Midwest/Plains/East Tornadoes
May 2013
Outbreak of tornadoes and severe weather over the Midwest, Plains and Eastern states (GA, IA, IL, KS, MO, NY, OK, TX) with 59 confirmed tornadoes including the deadly tornado that impacted Moore, OK. Many destructive tornadoes remained on the ground for an extended time.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.4 ($2.6) Billion
27 Deaths
Illinois Flooding and Severe Weather
April 2013
A slow-moving storm system created rainfall totals of 5 to 10 inches across northern and central Illinois including the Chicago metro. This resulted in damage to many homes and businesses. There was also severe weather damage from wind and hail across Indiana and Missouri.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.1 ($1.2) Billion
4 Deaths
Midwest/Plains Severe Weather
April 2013
Severe weather across the Midwest and Plains states (IN, KS, MO, NE) with a total of 26 confirmed tornadoes. Considerable damage resulting from hail and straight-line wind.
Total Estimated Costs
$1.4 ($1.6) Billion
1 Death
Southeast Severe Weather
March 2013
Severe weather over the Southeast (MS, AL, GA, TN) with 10 confirmed tornadoes. Considerable damage resulting from large hail and straight-line wind.
Total Estimated Costs
$2.0 ($2.2) Billion
1 Death

PETS, VOLCANO AND YOU


A volcano eruption can put many animals at risk.

Animals who inhale or ingest volcanic ash are at risk for fluoride poisoning. This could cause internal bleeding, long-term bone damage and teeth loss.

Cows, sheep, goats and horses should be rounded up and put in a closed barn, provided with hay and clean water until the ash dissipated.

Birds were also affected by the volcano. The ponds became heavy with mud and they were unable to fly because their wings were covered with ash.

Guidelines for pet owners concerning animal health after a volcano:

  • if you notice any symptoms or smell sulfur, rotten eggs or a strong acidic smell take reasonable action to protect your pets by limiting their time outdoors
  • any pets with respiratory problems should be well protected from the atmosphere
  • cover outdoor aviaries to protect birds
  • find suitable shelter for any pets that usually live outdoors.

“Pet owners should limit the amount of time that they and their animals spend outside if they detect the ash and consult a vet if they have any concerns about the health of their pets.”

Make sure that you bathe your pet often in Luke warm. Keep any wounds covered and dry. Change bandages everyday for any wounds.

 

The Vog Measurement and Prediction Project – VMAP.. Healthy Weather???


The Vog Measurement and Prediction Project (VMAP) provides real-time vog forecasts. With the help of our project collaborators vog forecasts are available to the public through this web site. Comments and inquiries can be directed to the appropriate contact. We welcome constructive comments from all VMAP users, and strive to provide the best possible service consistent with our mission and resources. Inquiries into actual measured values and concerns regarding hazardous conditions should be directed to the appropriate agency such as the Hawaii State Department of Health. The VMAP website is intended to be complementary to the data provided by other state and federal agencies.

Vog is primarily a mixture of sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas and sulfate (SO4) aerosol. SO2 (invisible) reacts with oxygen and moisture in the air to produce SO4 aerosol (visible). SO2 is expected to be the main problem in areas near the vent (Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, Pahala, Na`alehu, Hawaiian Ocean View Estates) and SO4 aerosol is expected to be the main problem at locations far from the vent (Kona and farther north and west). For more information on vog visit the FAQ page here.

Vog and Your Health

The links and material on this page are provided to summarize findings about the effects of vog on health.

Health Effects

How vog affects human health is the topic of active research. Children and those with pre-existing lung conditions are the most vulnerable to its effects. Some studies show that children and those with pre-existing respiratory problems are more likely to visit a medical clinic or emergency room during vog episodes. Although vog exposure has not been shown to cause childhood asthma, it has been shown to aggravate asthma in those already diagnosed with the condition.

When exposed to vog, some people report eye, nose, throat, and/or skin irritation, coughing and/or phlegm, chest tightness and/or shortness of breath, headache, and increased susceptibility to respiratory ailments. Some people also report fatigue and/or dizziness. One researcher also found vog is associated with high blood pressure. Another researcher found a link to anxiety. More detail on the health effects on vog can be found in the References section, or by visiting the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network.

Disclaimer: The information contained in the VMAP website is for general information purposes only. While we endeavor to keep the information accurate and up-to-date, we make no representations, warranties, or guarantees about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability, or availability with respect to the VMAP website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the VMAP website for any purpose. Although every effort is made to avoid interruptions to VMAP access, any reliance upon any information presented is strictly at your own risk. In no event will the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the UH-M Department of Atmospheric Sciences, the VMAP team, or any personnel or collaborator associated with VMAP be liable for any losses or damages (direct or indirect) without limitation whatsoever in connection with the use of the VMAP website. The general public is welcome to use the VMAP at this time and by its use implicitly agrees to the terms of this disclaimer.

CLICK HERE FOR VMAP

 

THE HEALTH HAZARDS OF VOLCANIC ASH (part 6 Precautions for Children)


THE HEALTH HAZARDS OF VOLCANIC ASH

A guide for the public

This   document   has   been   prepared   by   the International  Volcanic  Health  Hazard  Network (IVHHN), Cities and Volcanoes Commission, GNS Science and the United States Geological Survey (USGS)  to  promote  the  safety  of  those  who experience volcanic ashfall. This guide explains the potential health effects of volcanic ash and gives details on how to protect yourself and your family in the event of a volcanic ash fall.

Precautions for Children

Children face the same hazards from the suspension of ash as other age groups, but their exposure may be increased because
they are physically smaller and are less likely to adopt reasonable, prudent, preventive measures to avoid unnecessary
exposure to ash. While evidence suggests that ingestion of small amounts of ash is not hazardous, we recommend that you take
the following precautions.
  • Keep children indoors if possible.
  • Children should be advised against strenuous play or running when ash is in the air, since exertion leads to heavier breathing, drawing small particles more deeply into the lungs.
  • Communities in heavy ash fall areas may wish to organize day-care programs to free parents for clean-up tasks.
  • If children must be outdoors when ash is present in the air, they should wear a mask (preferably one approved by IVHHN). Many masks, however, are designed to fit adults rather than children.
  • Take particular care to prevent children playing in areas where ash is deep on the ground or piled up.
  • Long Pants, Long Sleeve Shirts, mask, goggles, Hats and gloves.

Reduce the exposure to ash:

The most effective way to reduce exposure, especially for people with particular susceptibilities (e.g., children and infants, older people and those with existing respiratory (lung) or cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) disease) is to shelter somewhere which is not ashy, ideally inside a building where you can stay indoors for some time, if necessary. If you are very concerned about your health, take advice from a health professional.

Take steps to keep ash out of your indoor environment:

  • Close doors and windows, where possible.
  • If possible, seal up large gaps and spaces to the outdoors. For example, you could use tape and plastic sheeting, or rolled-up towels.
  • Try to set up a single entry/exit point for the building. Leave ashy clothes/shoes outside
  • Do not use any appliances (e.g., air conditioners) which suck in air from the outside. If the indoor environment is ashy, try to gently clean away the ash (e.g., using damp cloths)
  • Don’t use vacuum cleaners as they can blow out fine ash, back into the indoor space.

If you are staying indoors for a long time:

  • Make sure that the indoor environment does not get too hot. If it gets too hot, consider evacuating.
  • Don’t use cooking and heating stoves, or other appliances, which produce smoke.
  • Do not smoke cigarettes or other products.
  • Do not use un-fluted gas heaters, or outdoor appliances such as gas patio heaters or barbecues, indoors, due to risk of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Once the ash has settled, it important to remove it through clean-up activities, using water to dampen it first. You must wear a face mask if you are cleaning up settled ash.

When should I use respiratory protection?

If you cannot remove yourself from the ash, you may wish to use some sort of respiratory protection (e.g., face mask), or may be advised to do so by governmental or humanitarian agencies. Masks may be worn when:

1) you are outdoors and there is ash in the air (either during ash fall or afterwards, when it may be remobilized by wind, vehicles and human activities);

2) ash is being mobilized indoors or outdoors by activities such as removal/cleaning-up.

Masks can be worn during waking hours. It is not recommended to wear a face mask while sleeping as it will probably not stay fitted to the face, and it is harder to breathe with a face mask on.

Who can wear respiratory protection?

People with existing respiratory or cardiovascular disease should talk to a health professional about whether facemasks are suitable. Care should be taken to ensure that it is not harder to breathe when using any form of respiratory protection.

Masks are not usually designed to fit children’s faces (although some manufacturers are now producing small masks aimed at children but not infants). Exposure for children and infants should be reduced by staying in a non-ashy (indoor) environment wherever possible. If you do give a mask to a child, show the child how to fit it well, and be very careful it does not make breathing difficult.

What types of respiratory protection are most effective?

The following information will help you decide on which type of respiratory protection to use, but other factors, such as the cost and availability of the protective products, may also need to be taken into account.

When you wear respiratory protection, the effectiveness depends particularly on two factors:

1) how effective the mask or material is at filtering particles (stopping the ash from passing through the material);

2) the fit of the mask or material to the face (preventing particles from entering around the edges).

  • The most effective respiratory protection for adults is to wear a well-fitting, industry-certified face mask such as an N95 mask (also called P2, FFP2 or DS2 in different parts of the world). The certification will be printed on the mask. Such masks are usually disposable.
    • These are highly-efficient at filtering ash and are also usually designed to fit adult faces well, but may be too big for children.
    • Due to their tight fit, they may feel uncomfortable.
    • Using highly-effective masks can make breathing harder; if you have existing respiratory or cardiovascular disease, talk to a health professional about whether such masks are suitable for you.
    • These masks come in many different shapes and sizes. Some fold out into a mask shape and some have a ready-made cup-shape. Some have a valve on the front to improve comfort by letting hot, humid air out. All of these masks will be highly-effective at filtering ash, if worn properly.
  • Some non-certified face masks state that they are designed to filter ‘PM2.5’ (small particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter), which is likely to be the most harmful fraction of the ash.
    • These are probably highly-efficient at filtering ash but are often not designed to fit well to the face and so may not be very effective.
  • A standard, pleated surgical mask will be good at filtering ash as long as it fits well to the face. If it does not, it will provide less protection than an industry-certified face mask.
  • Simple healthcare masks (rectangular, non-pleated) do not filter ash well and also do not have ways to make a good seal to the face.
  • Hard-cup (also called nuisance-dust), ‘fashion’ and scooter masks are less effective at filtering ash compared to industry-certified and surgical masks, and may not fit well to the face.
  • Cloth materials (e.g., bandanas, t-shirts, veils, handkerchiefs) worn over the nose and mouth are less effective at filtering ash than most masks, so will offer less protection and they also tend not to fit well.
    • Increasing the number of layers of cloth improves the ability to filter ash but will still be less effective at filtering ash than most face masks.
  • Wetting materials does not improve the ability of masks or cloth to filter volcanic ash.

How should I put on a face mask?

  • With clean hands, take the mask out of the packaging. Avoid contaminating the inside of the mask with ash.
  • Open up any flaps and prepare the straps/loops for tying around the head or ears.
  • Fit the mask over the nose and mouth.
  • Fit the straps to the head:
    • If the mask has elasticated, adjustable straps, put them over your head with the top strap above your ears, around the top of your head, and the lower strap below your ears, towards the bottom of your head. Tighten the straps until the mask makes a seal around your face and is comfortable.
    • If the mask has non-adjustable straps, tie them snuggly around the head.
    • If the mask has ear loops, you may need to use the loops to tighten the mask (you could tie a knot in the loops if the mask is baggy on your face).
  • With both hands, gently press the nose clip over the nose so that it fits well across the nose and onto the face below the eyes. Do not pinch the clip.
  • Press the edges of the mask onto your face (around the cheeks and chin).
  • Once you have fitted the mask, cover the mask with both hands, being careful not to change the fit. If you are using a mask without a valve, breathe out sharply. If you are using a mask with a valve, cover the valve with your hand before breathing out, or breathe in sharply, instead. You should not be able to feel any air escaping/entering around the edges of the mask. Readjust the fit until the seal is tight.
  • If you cannot get the mask to fit, try to find a different mask which fits your face better.

Make sure your choice of respiratory protection fits to your face!

  • A good face mask may have a flexible metal nose clip, adjustable straps and may also have foam around the edges to help with the seal to your face.
  • When your face mask fits properly, there should be a good seal around your face so that you cannot feel any air coming in around the edges.
  • Make sure that spectacle/goggle frames do not affect the seal between the face mask and your face.
  • If you have facial hair, the face mask will not be as effective, because it cannot make a good seal to your face.
  • You can improve the fit and effectiveness of a face mask by tying a layer of cloth over it, although you are likely to find this less comfortable and you should not tie the cloth so tight that it makes breathing harder.

How long will a face mask last for?

  • Disposable masks are designed for single use (so packaging will often state that they should be disposed of after 8 hours) but they can be worn until you notice that they are clogged and/or breathing becomes harder, or if you notice the mask starting to break.
  • However, you may choose to replace them sooner for hygiene reasons and should check frequently for any degradation or growth of mold.
  • Some industrially-certified face masks have a ‘use-by’ date printed on them. After this date, the manufacturer cannot guarantee the integrity of the mask materials.
  • If supplies are limited, disposable masks can be stored for re-use in a clean bag or box to ensure that dust from the outside does not contaminate them. They should not be hung in a dusty environment.
  • Some manufacturers now make non-disposable masks for community use. These can often be washed, for hygiene reasons, but washing will not remove particles from the filtering layer, so they must also be discarded when they become clogged and/or breathing becomes harder, or if you notice the mask starting to break.For further information on the health hazards of volcanic ash and preparedness for ash fall, please download the IVHHN pamphlets available at: http://www.ivhhn.org/pamphlets.htmlThe above material is reproduced from the NEW IVHHN guidelines on Protection from Breathing Ash. Please visit that page for the source research and references.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HEALTH HAZARDS OF VOLCANIC ASH (part 4 Indirect health effects )


THE HEALTH HAZARDS OF VOLCANIC ASH

A guide for the public

This   document   has   been   prepared   by   the International  Volcanic  Health  Hazard  Network (IVHHN), Cities and Volcanoes Commission, GNS Science and the United States Geological Survey (USGS)  to  promote  the  safety  of  those  who experience volcanic ashfall. This guide explains the potential health effects of volcanic ash and gives details on how to protect yourself and your family in the event of a volcanic ash fall.

Indirect Effects of Ash Fall

As well as the short and long term health risks, indirect impacts of large ash falls must also be considered. These mainly arise from the secondary consequences of ash fall.

Effects on roads

The reduction in visibility from airborne ash alone may cause accidents. This danger is compounded by ash
covering roads. Not only are road markings covered up, but thin layers of either wet or dry ash are very
slippery, reducing traction. Thick deposits of ash may make roads impassable, cutting off communities from
basic supplies.

Effects on Power

Ash fall can lead to power cuts. These may have implications for health due to lack of heating
or other infrastructural requirements that depend on electricity. Wet ash is conductive, so it is essential
that safe operating procedures are stringently followed when cleaning power supply equipment.

Effects on water supplies

Ash fall can cause contamination of water or clogging and damage of water supply equipment. Small, open
water supplies such as domestic water tanks with roof drainage are especially vulnerable to volcanic ash fall,
and even small quantities of ash may cause problems for potability. While the risk of toxicity is low, the pH
may be reduced or chlorination inhibited. During and after ash falls, there is also likely to be extra water
demand for clean-up, resulting in water shortages.

Effects on sanitation

(waste water disposal etc).
The temporary disablement of municipal sanitation systems may lead to increased disease in affected areas.

Risk Of Roof Collapse

1) Roofs can collapse from the weight of ash, resulting in injury or death for those underneath.
2) There is a danger of roof collapse whilst clearing ash from roofs due to the increased load of a person on an already overloaded roof.
3) In several eruptions people have died after falling from their roofs while cleaning up ash.

Animal Health

If the ash is coated in hydrofluoric acid, the ash can be very toxic to grazing animals if they ingest ash-covered grass and soil.